1 de septiembre de 2009

¿Cómo es una universidad de rango mundial?

En el desafío de crear universidades de rango mundial de Jamil Salmi (2009) se indican las posibles estrategias para establecer universidades competitivas globalmente. Para ello explora los retos, costos y riesgos que esto supone esta vía para las universidades que aspiren a ello. Bajo este marco, ¿cómo contribuye la virtualidad en el desarrollo de una Universidad de Rango Mundial (URM)?

Se plantea inicialmente: “Aunque la mayoría de las 45 clasificaciones más conocidas tratan de ordenar por separado las universidades existentes dentro de cada país, ha habido también intentos de establecer clasificaciones internacionales. Las dos clasificaciones internacionales más completas, que permiten extensas evaluaciones comparativas de las instituciones a través de las fronteras nacionales, son los preparados por THES y la Universidad Jiao Tong de Shanghai (SJTU)”.

Ambas ofrecen un listado diferente, producto de dos definiciones sobre qué es una URM así como en las metodologías usadas. La clasificación THES se centra en la reputación internacional, la combinación de aportaciones subjetivas (revisiones por pares y las encuestas de reclutamientos para empresarios), datos cuantitativos (incluido el número de estudiantes y profesores internacionales), y la influencia del profesorado (representada por las citas de investigación). Por su parte, la clasificación SJTU usa una metodología que se centra exclusivamente en indica­dores objetivos, como el rendimiento académico y de investigación de los profesores, premios, antiguos alumnos y personal. No obstante de los criterios de medida, según este estudio, ¿cómo sería una Universidad de Rango Mundial? En el Apéndice D se definen estas “Características clave de las Universidades de Rango Mundial”.

Para alcanzar este perfil no existen caminos cortos, pero si factores complementarios en juego que también se indican en el estudio:

a) una alta concentración de talento (profesores y estudiantes);
b) abundantes recursos para ofrecer un rico ambiente de aprendizaje así como para llevar a cabo in­vestigaciones avanzadas, y
c) características favorables de gobernabilidad que fomenten una visión estratégica, innovación y flexibilidad, y que permitan que las instituciones tomen decisiones y administren sus recursos sin ser obstaculizadas por la burocracia. (Imagen).


No hay duda que esta definición busca examinar las universidades desde la perspectiva de la excelencia en la investigación y el rendimiento académico en sus niveles más competitivos, pero es aqui donde volvemos a la preguntarnos:

¿En qué medida una universidad virtual puede ser una URM?
¿Se puede entender la innovación docente con TIC, las Comunidades Virtuales de Aprendizaje, los cursos virtuales o los servicios Web 2.0, entre otros, como indicadores de la definición de URM?
¿Las universidad a distancia y virtuales requieren otros parámetros?


En fin, preguntas que se pueden hacer fuera del modelo presencial de una Universidad de Rango Mundial ¿no?

Apéndice D: Características clave de las Universidades de Rango Mundial:
    • Posee una reputación internacional por sus investigaciones.
    • Posee una reputación internacional por su enseñanza.
    • Tiene un número de investigadores estrellas y líderes de fama mundial en sus respectivas especialidades.
    • Es reconocida no sólo por otras universidades de rango mundial (por ejemplo, el
      grupo de universidades Ivy League de EEUU), sino también fuera del mundo de la
      educación superior.
    • Tiene algunos departamentos de rango mundial (aunque no todos, necesariamente).
    • Se identifica y se basa en sus excelentes capacidades en el campo de la investigación y tiene una reputación y un enfoque especiales (por sus “principales” temas de
      investi­gación).
    • Genera ideas innovadoras y produce numerosos resultados de la investigación básica y aplicada.
    • Produce resultados de investigación muy innovadores, que son reconocidos por sus pares y premiados (como el premio Nobel, por ejemplo).
    • Atrae a los estudiantes más capaces y produce los mejores graduados.
    • Puede atraer y retener al mejor personal.
    • Puede contratar a personal y a estudiantes en un mercado internacional.
    • Atrae a una gran proporción de estudiantes de posgrado, para obtener diplomas con tesis de investigación o sin ella.
    • Atrae a una gran proporción de estudiantes extranjeros.
    • Funciona dentro de un mercado mundial y tiene muchas actividades de carácter interna­cional (por ejemplo, vínculos de investigación, intercambios de estudiantes y personal, y visitantes de categoría internacional).
    • Tiene una base financiera sólida.
    • Recibe grandes donaciones de capital y tiene altos ingresos.
    • Tiene fuentes de ingresos diversificadas (por ejemplo, el gobierno, el sector de las em­presas privadas, los ingresos de investigación y las cuotas de matrícula de los
      estudiantes extranjeros).

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