25 de marzo de 2020

Matriz de escenarios de aprendizaje digital



Como tantas veces, frente a una acción hay una reacción y en estas circunstancias tan especiales donde es necesario seguir educando a pesar del COVID-19, me animo a caracterizar una matriz de escenarios de aprendizaje digital.

La necesidad, además de conceptual –porque estas ideas latentes desde hace mucho necesitaban ser ordenadas-, es presentar a docentes, compañeros e interesados un marco de representación pedagógica desde donde partir y ubicar sus propuestas para la migración de la experiencia educativa presencial a la digital.

Esta propuesta se entronca en la visión socio cultural de aprendizaje (Vigostky 2000) y sus desarrollos actuales que, a decir de Daniels (2003,103), “comparten la idea de que la teoría desarrollada por Vigotsky proporciona un valioso instrumento para estudiar e intentar comprender los procesos de formación social de la mente”, en este caso, llevado al terreno de la educación digital.

En apretadas líneas. Por un lado, esta visión no solo permite entender que la interacción social es condición de aprendizaje, sino que lo social también forma parte de la misma explicación de qué es aprender. La propuesta sociocultural es más que la famosa Zona de Desarrollo Próximo (ZDP), implica ver la medición social como explicación, condición y motor del aprendizaje. Por otro lado, esta teoría también permite cifrar el papel de la tecnología en nuestra actividad entendiéndola como instrumento de mediación, en un doble sentido: tanto como herramienta (acción externa) o como representación simbólica (acción interna). Para la propuesta sociocultural, la cultura media la relación entre el sujeto y su realidad transformando la acción como la perspectiva, por ello, cada instrumento cultural altera la naturaleza del conocimiento. 

Pues bien, ya que aprender –y enseñar- no son acciones asépticas al entorno social y la cultural, los cambios en la forma de interacción social y en el acceso a la cultura que proporciona la tecnología digital modifican nuestra visión de lo posible. Alteran, por tanto, nuestra noción de educabilidad.

Si aprender es un proceso de reestructuración subjetiva a partir de los instrumentos de mediación cultural en condiciones de interacción social, para visualizar la oportunidad que abre la experiencia de aprendizaje en entornos digitales se puede hablar de cuatros escenarios cruzando dos líneas: 

  • La línea de la acción social que va desde la guía docente hasta la participación social.
  • La línea de la representación de la actividad que va desde estructurada hasta flexible.

Buscando emplear el marco de la teoría sociocultural, y recuperado el aporte de otras propuestas al respecto (Coomey & Stephenson, 2001; Falconer, Conole, Jeffery & Douglas, 2006; Jönsson, 2005; Katsidis, Anastasiades & Zacharopoulos, 2008; Lizandra, Ros, Suárez, & Marhuenda, 2019; Peña‐López, I. (2017). Redecker, 2017; Stephenson & Sangrà, 2003; Suárez-Guerrero, Lizandra y Ros, 2019), se presenta esta propuesta donde, como se ve en la Figura, ya no está en juego el tema síncrono o asíncrono, sino más bien quienes participan y cómo se organiza la tarea.

Aquí una sucinta descripción:

Un primer escenario seria la enseñanza: se trata de la guía docente en sentido pleno con una alta estructuración de las actividades. Un profesor dando clase con una presentación en la clase presencial o dando una videoconferencia serían dos ejemplos.

Un segundo escenario sería la actividad personal: se trata de actividades que sugiere el docente pero que el estudiante tiene que desarrollar de forma autónoma. La curación de contenidos sobre un tema a investigar o la edición una entrada personal de blog, serían dos ejemplos.

Un tercer cuadrante sería la actividad entre pares: se trata de actividades propuestas desde la docencia, de ahí estructuradas, donde los estudiantes según las pautas de organización trabajan de forma coordinada con otros en metas compartidas de aprendizaje. El aprendizaje cooperativo basado en proyectos o la revisión entre pares en tableros compartidos, serían dos ejemplos.

Un cuarto cuadrante sería la comunidad: se trata de actividades, propuestas o no desde la docencia, que permiten a los estudiantes formar parte de otros colectivos de aprendizaje con pautas y frecuencias muy flexibles. Participar de un MOOC o formar parte de una comunidad virtual de aprendizaje serian dos ejemplos.

Como se puede ver, son cuatro grandes orientaciones del uso educativo de la tecnología digital donde caben muchos matices, sesgos y contrastes. Sin embargo, no siendo la última propuesta que se elaborará sobre este tema, lo que si puede aportar es cierta orientación en este frenético trabajo que es digitalizar la experiencia de aprendizaje que hoy nos toda asumir como docentes.


Referencias 
Coomey, M., & Stephenson, J. (2001). Online learning: it is all about dialogue, involvement, support and control-according to the research. In J. Stephenson (Ed.), Teaching and learning online: Pedagogies for new technologies (pp. 37-52). London: Kogan Page. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.458.4620&rep=rep1&type=pdf 

Daniels, H. (2003). Vigotsky y la pedagogía. Barcelona: Paidós.

Falconer, I., Conole, G., Jeffery, A., & Douglas, P. (2006). Learning activity reference model–pedagogy. UK: University of Dundee, University of Southampton, Intrallect Ltd. Retrieved from 

http://www.academia.edu/download/3458696/LARM_Pedagogy30-03-06.doc 

Jönsson, B. A. (2005). A case study of successful e-learning: A web-based distance course in medical physics held for school teachers of the upper secondary level. Medical engineering & physics, 27(7), 571-581. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1350453305001074 

Katsidis, C. C., Anastasiades, P. S., & Zacharopoulos, V. G. (2008). Assessing student satisfaction in an asynchronous e-learning environment. In WSEAS International Conference. Proceedings. Mathematics and Computers in Science and Engineering (No. 5). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234806534_Assessing_student_satisfaction_in_an_asynchronous_e-learning_environment 

Lizandra, J., Ros, A., Suárez, C., & Marhuenda, F. (2019). Digital competence of VET teachers: Illustrations from non-technological professions.In B. E. Stalder &C. Nägele (Eds.), Trends in vocational education and training research, Vol. II, 250–258. Proceedings of the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3371515 

Peña‐López, I. (2017). “¿Con qué aprender en red? Estrategias y herramientas para la abertura y disrupción de las instituciones educativas”. In Gros Salvat, B. & Suárez‐Guerrero, C. (Eds.), Pedagogía red. Una educación para tiempos de Internet, Capítulo 4, 77‐104. Barcelona: Octaedro ‐ ICE UAB. 

Redecker, C. (2017). European framework for the digital competence of educators: DigCompEdu (No. JRC107466). Seville: Joint Research Centre. Retrieved from: https://ideas.repec.org/p/ipt/iptwpa/jrc107466.html 

Stephenson, J., & Sangrà, A. (2003). Modelos pedagógicos y e-learning: Fundamentos del diseño técnico-pedagógico en elearning. Barcelona: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Retrieved from https://yedaldisenodecursosenlinea.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/modelos-pedagogicos-y-e-learning.pdf 

Vigotsky, L. (2000). El desarrollo de los procesos psicológicos superiores. Barcelona: Crítica.

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