31 de diciembre de 2021

Didáctica y post pandemia

 ¿Cuándo la escuela se cierra, que educación se abre?, puede ser la pregunta que, como docentes y alumnos, nos abrumara en pleno confinamiento por COVID-19. Hoy que se inicia un nuevo curso en nuestra universidad, con mascarillas y guardando prudente distancia, seguimos absortos de este hecho sin precedentes que nos deja una evidencia: el factor sanitario pasó de ser accesorio a ser fundamental en la concepción, gestión y evaluación de la escolaridad y la educabilidad. Esto, además de ejemplificar la complejidad que supone entender la educación, abre una serie de tareas también inéditas a quienes, como nosotros, nos encargamos de guiar procesos de aprendizaje desde la enseñanza. ¿Por qué? Porque la educación que se construyó a trancas y barrancas en el COVID-19, y que en otras latitudes sigue siendo la normalidad, representa para el conocimiento didáctico otro hecho educativo, otro objeto de estudio y de intervención y, como tal, un tópico sui generis, global y aún incierto para la teoría y la práctica (praxis) educativa del que hay que tomar nota. Este es un aprendizaje por desarrollar, este es un aprendizaje por construir que, más temprano que tarde, como maestras y maestros, debemos encarar porque la realidad lo exige. 

Aunque el impacto social, cultural o económico que representa y representará educar en pandemia se podrá valorar con nitidez a medida que pase el tiempo, para la didáctica del aula, construida desde hace siglos en torno al modelo de presencialidad, supone un revulsivo que va más allá de un cambio de unas herramientas por otras, sino un cambio, nada más y nada menos, del contexto educativo. Un contexto educativo digital, como el forzado por la pandemia, define los problemas y posibilidades del proceso de aprendizaje, el acceso y distribución del contenido de aprendizaje, los flujos de interacción social mediado por diversas formas de comunicación, un incognoscible clima afectivo, la noción de tareas y de tiempo, la expectativa de logro del aprendizaje, la presencia de nuevos agentes educativos en el currículo, la escolarización del hogar, la dataficación de los procesos, etc. y además de los procesos psicológicos propios de la gestión de la incertidumbre, así como de los problemas técnicos –para docentes y alumnado- ligados a la conectividad o la navegabilidad en otro entorno de aprendizaje.

Como la teoría didáctica se reconstruye en cada contexto escolar, todo este cambio generado por la pandemia, lejos de ser solo un giro digital, supone para el conocimiento didáctico de los docentes un giro inédito en la enseñanza, pendiente por entender. Como se señala en un ilustrativo testimonio docente colectivo, la pandemia por COVID-19 aún está lejos de terminar, y no hay duda de que las ciencias de la educación analizarán este repentino cambio global de la enseñanza y el aprendizaje digital durante muchos años. Situados aquí, quizá lo más lo importante del COVID-19 no solo sea pensar lo nuevo, sino ver si realmente puede ser una oportunidad para pensar de nuevo la educación.

¿Por dónde pensar lo nuevo, y de nuevo en educación? Cuando lo digital se perfiló como la salida -que no, la solución- a la situación de confinamiento global por la pandemia, la llamada “educación digital de emergencia”, surge un nuevo fenómeno educativo. El proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje que se vivió en el confinamiento fue otra experiencia educativa, ni fue la educación digital “clásica” prudentemente diseñada y validada, ni una simple adición de tecnología en la enseñanza. Aprender y enseñar en pandemia es un nuevo fenómeno educativo, un nuevo objeto de estudio y, por ello, un nuevo estadio de conocimiento para la didáctica general y especializada.

Por tener imagen del panorama sobre la tarea pendiente. Solo en el campo de la educación y COVID-19, por ejemplo, haciendo una búsqueda en WOS de “education” + “covid-19” (títulos) en el año 2020 y lo que se lleva de 2021, se pueden encontrar unos 15,891 trabajos que dan cuenta de la complejidad y una amplia gama de disciplinas que se encargan de su estudio.

Áreas de estudio sobre educación y COVID-19 en 2020 y 2021 (sep.) en WOS.

«¿Qué conocimiento potencial proviene de la pandemia de coronavirus?”. Para encarar esta tarea, como perfila Jandrić, existe la necesidad de experimentar con prácticas de investigación fuerte y valiente que, sin miedo, puedan reeditar la educación. Como él mismo entiende, hay que marcar ese día después del COVID-19 como un momento simbólico e histórico importante y como un recordatorio para desarrollar nuevos enfoques de investigación adecuados para nuestra realidad.

La idea, por tanto, es que cuando la pandemia ya no sea un peligro hayamos podido aprender de ella. El COVID-19 debe implicar para todos nosotros un gran aprendizaje, pero para quien quiere enseñar, un reto doble de conocimiento. En esta línea, sin pretender colmar el amplio espectro de la tarea, formulo dos ideas para el debate en la didáctica:

Por tanto, un proyecto educativo postpandémico, que sin duda normalizará modelos basados en diseño con soporte digital, puede considerar que esa tecnología, con sus dilemas y posibilidades, es necesaria pero no suficiente dada la complejidad de la educación y que el mejor camino para crecer en la experiencia y el conocimiento didáctico es apostar por una teoría e investigación educativa crítica.

Publicado originalmente el 23 de septiembre en BitMagis (Unievsritat de València)

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